Long-term orientation in family businesses : antecedents, contingencies, and the role of innovativeness
University of Wisconsin--Whitewater
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Family businesses are driven by economic and noneconomic goals that tie back to the wealth of the family members and firm. Thus, more studies have shown interest in examining the long-term perspectives of family firms and the factors that contribute to their desire to achieve transgenerational wealth. A long-term orientation is a mindset of the dominant coalition of family members that changes over time. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that have tested the antecedents and outcomes of long-term orientation (LTO) and its relevant contingencies. This dissertation examined LTO in two essays to address this gap. The purpose of Essay 1 was to examine the antecedents of LTO in family businesses through stewardship theory and agency theory. This study employed 238 shareholder letters and secondary data sources through content analysis to examine the antecedents of LTO in family firms. The findings suggested that family involvement is positively associated with LTO. Additionally, the findings suggested that CEO incentives, nonfamily CEO tenure, and CEO ownership have negative relationships with an LTO. The purpose of Essay 2 was to empirically examine the relationship between LTO and family firm performance through the resource-based view (RBV). This LTO–performance relationship is mediated by innovativeness because the LTO of the dominant coalition catalyzes to identify resources for innovation. Additionally, the relationship between LTO and innovativeness may be moderated by board governance and environmental factors because the mindset of the dominant coalition may change to adapt to these factors. This study examined 249 shareholder letters and secondary data to determine the influences that LTO has in family firms. This study predicted that LTO does have a significant influence on the dominant coalition’s decision making. As such, an LTO mindset will adapt to different governance structures in the firm, as well as to the changes in the external environment. This study proposed to show that innovativeness is positively associated with LTO and firm performance.
Family-owned business enterprises