Safe Control of Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Installed Timers for Demand Side Management
Motivated in part by the expanded use of renewable power generation, which are often non-dispatchable and intermittent, we examine the role of electric loads in providing ancillary services for demand side management. A large ensemble of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) can provide ancillary services and help balance generation and demand. In this thesis we model and control the aggregated power consumed by a large ensemble of TCLs like air-conditioners. We develop safe protocols for thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power pulses to the grid without a subsequent oscillatory response. Such pulses can alleviate power fluctuations by intermittent resources and maintain balance between generation and demand. A power pulse in either upward (rise) or downward (drop) direction can be generated by signaling the TCLs to turn on or off. The width of the pulse depends on the time for which the fluctuation occurs and the magnitude of the pulse depends on the size of the ensemble. Thus, by generating pulses of varying magnitudes and widths we can offset fast time scale fluctuations in the power grid.