The effects of an induced internal and external attentional focus upon upper body stregnth
Techniques were employed to induce an external and internal attentional focus (AF) upon 13 male and 14 female collegiate swimmers. Ss answered an attentional focus questionnaire (AFQ) and completed a flexed-arm hang to exhaustion under 2 external focus conditions, listening to stimulative music (ST) and sedative music (SE), and P internal focus condition, watching their reflection in a mirror (SR). Hang time (HT) in sec and ratiag of perceived exertion (RPE) on a scale of 1 to 10 were measured. The order of the conditions was counterbalanced among Ss, Analysis of postexperimental responses by Ss from oral questioning indicated that the procedures used to induce the specific AF were partially successful. A MANQVA with repeated measures on HT and RPE revealed that HT was significantly longer for males than females (p < .05), but RPE was not significantly different (g > .05). There was a significant interaction of gender by condition on RPE (p < .05), but not HT (p > .05). Newman Kuels post-hoc tests indicated that RPE was significantly higher (p a .05) for females than males during SE and SR relative to ST. Female's SE RPE was significantly higher (E < .05) relative to ST and SR. RPEs for males were not significantly different between conditions (p > .05). AFQ results indicated Ss did not utilize a specific AF while swimming.