WISCONSIN HMONG REFUGEE PERINATAL BEHAVIORS AND INFANT OUTCOMES: ANALYSIS OF TRENDS AND DISPARITIES
Promer, Tricia A.
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There is a lack of information on the perinatal behaviors of Hmong women. It is not documented whether there have been changes over time or whether there are health disparities in this population compared to the dominant Caucasian population. Changes over time could indicate the acculturation process regarding perinatal versus prenatal. Wisconsin, being one of three states with a large Hmong population, was chosen for analysis. Descriptive statistics were gathered from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics for Health (WISH), which is data derived from the Wisconsin Birth Records, along with available data from state birth record data from the Wisconsin Bureau of Health Statistics (both of which are population data and not sample data) and Wisconsin Women Infants and Children (WIC) data base reports are reported. These are analyzed in light of a review of literature on Hmong specific perinatal behaviors. Additional demographic data from infant mortality statistics and the U.S. Census demographic data are integrated into the analysis. Sr. Callistra Roy's Adaptation Model provides the theoretical framework for the study. Trends were identified in the analysis of data from 1989 to 2008, comparing the Hmong population to the dominant Caucasian population were examined. Changes over time are noted, which may be related to acculturation regarding prenatal behaviors, which include the increase of tobacco use, decrease in alcohol consumption, seeking prenatal care earlier, and an increase in breastfeeding rates, after an initial drop following immigration. Some trends discovered involved infant outcomes, which showed an increase in low birth weight, NICU utilization with the tobacco increase, infant mortality over time, and neonatal mortality. These results suggest that, overall, the Hmong are acculturating and taking on both positive and negative behaviors of the dominant culture, and infant and neonatal outcomes have been affected.
Hmong Americans medical care