What does it mean to be "educated" from an oral culture: a study of traditional Hmong knowledge
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This study explores Indigenous knowledge in juxtaposition with Western liberalism. It draws from diverse bodies of research on Indigenous oral traditions and ways of knowing. However, the focus is on (H)mong oral culture and traditions through a critical race theory and phenomenology lens. The exploration of what it means to have knowledge and how knowledge is obtained for a (H)mong person draws from the interviews of five (H)mong Elders ages 65 to 79. The study concludes that (H)mong oral tradition is rich, complex, irreplaceable and does not need legitimization from print societies to justify its validity.