The effects of caffeine and triclocarban on Gammarus pseudolimnaeus
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The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has become increasingly prevalent in the world in recent years. Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals such as aspirin and ibuprofen, prescription pharmaceuticals such as birth control pills, hypertension medication and anti-depressants, antimicrobials used in hand soaps and other personal care products, and the caffeine found in our coffee and soda are a regular part of daily life. Many of these compounds are only partially absorbed by the body through ingestion, and as a result, are routed through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).1 Some of these PPCPs flow through the WWTPs as effluent, or are partitioned to sludge, which is ultimately released back into the environment as agricultural fertilizer.2 The high volume use of these PPCPs has led to their accumulation in the aquatic environment, and measurable concentrations have been detected in surface waters, algae and fish.1, 3, 4 Environmental levels of triclocarban and caffeine have been found to be as high as 122 and 65 ?g/L, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC), and of the stimulant caffeine, to Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, a freshwater amphipod.
Anti-infective agents--Environmental aspects
Gammarus pseudolimnaeus--Effect of chemicals on
Gammarus pseudolimnaeus--Effect of water pollution on