The effects of an adventure education unit versus a traditional sport unit on self-esteem in middle school boys and girls
Nielson, Bret M.
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This study examined the effects of adventure education and a traditional sport unit on self-esteem in middle school boys and girls. The study also examined the correlation between Hellison's levels of responsibility and self-esteem. Hellison's levels of responsibility is a performance grade each subject gave himself/herself on their perceived level of responsibility for each class period. The sample included 53 male and female students from St. Mary's school. The subjects were randomly placed into one of two groups. The treatment group (N = 27) participated in a ten-class period adventure education unit. The control group (N = 26) participated in a ten-class period floor hockey unit. Subjects completed a pre/post test questionnaire measuring their perceived self-esteem. This instrument was a modified version of Rosenberg's 40-point Likert scale. An independent samples t-test yielded no significant difference between group means (p = .091). A change in self-esteem was measured by subtracting the posttest score from the pretest score. The t-test yielded no significant difference in self-esteem from either group. A one-way ANCOVA test indicated no significant difference between groups (p=.148). A Pearson Product Moment-Correlation Coefficient test found no significant relationship between Hellison's levels of responsibility and self-esteem. The treatment group yielded an (r = .789) and documented high levels; of self-esteem and social responsibility, but is unclear as to the extent of the correlation between self-esteem and the student's level of responsibility. The results of this study indicate no significant difference in self-esteem from an adventure education unit or a traditional sport unit. It also found no significant correlation between self-esteem and Hellison's levels of responsibility.
Adventure education -- Psychological aspects.
Indoor hockey -- Psychological aspects.
Self-esteem in children.
Middle school students.