Bibliographic Notes - Roberto Rossetti

Names of books and journals are distinctively colored.
  1. See Schuchardt, H., "Die Lingua Franca" Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie, vol 33 (1909) 441-461; English translation by Glenn G. Gilbert, Pidgin and Creole Languages (Cambridge and London, 1980) <-
  2. See Grion, G., "Farmacopea e Lingua Franca del Dugento", Archivio Glottologico Italiano vol 12, (1890-1892) <-
  3. For example 968 Tunisians had been sold as slaves in Malta from 1780 to 1791 (See Godechot, J., "La Course Maltaise le long des côtes barbaresques à la fin du XVIII Siècle" Revue Africaine (1952) p. 105.) Piracy against the Italian coasts took an habitual toll from 1621 to 1782 but escalated to unprecedented proportions in the 1795-1805 period: an Ancien Régime ambassador, quoted by Curzio Malaparte in 'La Pelle,' defined Naples as ' the only town in the Levant not to have a European quarter.' Tunis had taken the lead since the 18th century, as its raids were individual initiatives and not state ventures as in Algiers. Privateering licences (issued by European consuls!) between 1790 and 1815 at Algiers were 20 on average, where in Tunis they usually ranged above 50, with peaks of almost 100 in 1798 and 1805. See Grandchamp, P., Documents relatifs aux Corsaires Tunisiens [2 Oct. 1774 - 4 Mai 1824] (Tunis, 1925) <-
  4. For the French consulate, see the meticulous work of Grandchamp, Pierre, La France en Tunisie (1582-1705) vols. I-X, Tunis, (1920-1933) as well as Debbasch, Y. La Nation Française en Tunisie (1577-1835) (Paris, 1957); Masson, P., Histoire des établissements et du commerce français dans l'Afrique barbaresque (1590-1793) (Paris, 1903); Charles-Roux, F., France et Afrique du Nord avant 1830 (Paris, 1932). For the Danish consulate, see Desfeuilles, P., "Scandinaves et Barbaresques à la fin de l'Ancien Régime" Cahiers de Tunisie, n.15, (1956) p. 327. For the United States 'to the shores of Tripoli' as the U.S. Marine Corps anthem begins, see Dupuy, E., Américains et Barbaresques (1776-1824) (Paris, 1910| ) and Irwin, Ray W., The diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers (1776-1825) (Chapel Hill, 1931). For relations with Italian states, see Gallico, Augusto, Tunisi e i Consoli Sardi (1816-1834) (Bologna, 1935) as well as Riggio, Achille, "Relazioni della Toscana Granducale con la Reggenza di Tunisi (1818-1825)" and "Tunisi e il Regno di Napoli nei primordi del secolo XIX" Oriente Moderno, 1940, n. 3, and 1947 n. 1/2. Also Venice had its consulate in Tunis (although its records are dispersed) which, in spite of strict directions by the Venetian Council of 4 September, 1786, was mostly staffed by Genoese nationals. (It is worth noting that in 1814, the officer in charge for the Secretary of State, War and Cabinet of the King of Sardinia was named Lommellini.) The National Archives at Paris (Fonds Affaires étrangères et Marine) and after 1789 those of the Quay d'Orsay. The Public Records Office in London, and the Archivio di Stato at Turin and Florence, as well as Harbour Archives at Leghorn, Venice and Marseilles, are abundant mines of hidden data. <-
  5. Vol. V, page 291 and page 118. In vol II, page 47, Agostin Bianco appears again as Caytto Morato Genovese Turco (1604), and later as Juldàg bene Abedolo (ibn Abdullah) Turco Genovese: not to be confused with Morato bey Corso, or Morato oldach Calabrese. Osta Morato from Albissola, or more probably Arenzano, was Dey from 1637 to his death in 1640 and was succeeded by his son. (See Pellissier et Rémusat, Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie pendant les années 1840-1842 (Paris, 1845) p. 345. Most quotations refer to the same people, that go by several names, and there is no great variety of names, some of which, like Brémond or Nyssen, give the impression of dynastic lines: around 1820 Antonio Nyssen, Tabarchino from his mother's side, was consul of Tuscany and Holland, agent for Austria, and protector of Russian subjects. See Monchicourt, Ch., Relations Inédites de Nyssen, Filippi et Calligaris (Paris, 1929, page 329.) <-
  6. The manuscript is bound in two volumes (Ms. 12219-12220) <-
  7. See Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant vol. 87/2, page 122. <-
  8. See "Alger au 18e Siècle," (1898) p.15. <-
  9. A copy of the 1927-1929 reprint by the Bibliophile Society of Madrid is in the library of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. <-
  10. Published by de la Asunción, P. Antonino, in the Diccionário de Escritores Trinitarios de España y Portugal (Rome, 1899) vol. 2 page 376; see also: Porres Alonzo, P. Bonifacio, Libertad a los Cautivos, 1198-1705 2 vols., (Córdoba/Salamanca, 1997-1998), as well as Manuscrit de la Bibliothèque Mazarine, édité pour la première fois par le R.P. Calixte de la Providence, religieux trinitaire, sur les plus Illustres Captifs (Lyon, 1892), and Descandres, P., L'Ordre des Trinitaires pour le Rachat des Captifs (Paris, 1903). The Trinitarian Order, founded by J. de Matha in 1198, was recognized by Pope Innocent III. Its headquarters were set at San Carlo alle 4 Fontane, in Rome in 1634 (adjoining the Saint Denis French Redemption convent of 1619 that was demolished fifty years ago) and a delegation was opened in Leghorn in 1670. P. Grandchamp had published in Revue Tunisienne n. 6, (1931) four lists of 'Sicilian' slaves redeemed from 1690 to 1807 by a similar institution that had been confirmed by Pope Clement VII in 1597, and A. Riggio in Archivio Storico per la Calabria e Lucania III-IV (1938) published another, also uncovered by Grandchamp, of 1500 names divided into some 50 sections, most of which are labelled in standard Italian, with some colorful exceptions that bring out the Lingua Franca titles used at the time: serraglia; guardarobi; bardo giardinari; guarda scarpi; abandagia (laundry); Bitte Casanadale (Beit el Khaznadar, or Treasurer's Residence); Dall'Imen (Imam's residence); Bitte Laudo (Beit el Oudu, or rest house); cavagini (coffee caterer), dall'ukil (from the deputy, possibly meaning wakil al'am, or secretary of the Assembly); nel giardino del Sappa Tappa, ma schiavi del Patrone [sic] (Zappi Tappa, or Sappi Tappa was for Sàhib at-Tàbi, or Lord Keeper of the Seals); Al divano (inner council); Al-deylettli (Dey or Doletli, also Doletri, was the Provost or Chief of the local police.) Indeed there was a great difference among the Bey, Dey, Pasha and other titles casually bestowed on occasional visitors; a good account was given by G. Finotti La Reggenza di Tunisi (Malta, 1856.) For the proper translation of such titles Riggio relied on the admirable knowledge of Italian by Grandchamp, so much so that in the rare instances he did not provide it (Comagini, Pantacini) Riggio felt shy of suggesting one, although they assuredly refer to professional trades. <-
  11. [I suggested to Professor Rossetti that the text which he marks [sic] should read: "il n'y a presque que d'infinitifs" i.e. there are almost exclusively only infinitives... This is an awkward sentence, which probably caused "que" to be replaced by "pas," completely changing the meaning. -- A.D.C.]
    La Condamine was a prolific writer, and it is sometimes difficult to keep track of his eclectic production; this particular quote, uncovered by Dr. Ferdinand Hoefer, in an unpublished manuscript of the Bibliothèque Nationale (folio 2592) was inserted by him into L'Univers pictoresque, Histoire et Description de tous les peuples, de leurs réligions et moeurs, coutumes, industries (Paris, 1850): Algérie, Tunis, États tripolitains (page 113 in this section.) Doctor Frank compiled the Tunis section.

    Here is a full quote from the 'Europe Galante' Scene V (Ballet representé par l'Academie Royale de Musique l'An 1697 -- Les paroles de M. de la Mothe et la musique de M. Campra -- page 168, Recueil général des opéras representéz par l'Academie Royale de Musique Tome VI (Paris, 1703):

    (Zuliman, Zaide, Les Sultanes et les Bostangis, ou Jardiniers du Serail forment plusieurs Jeux, suivant leur caractère.

    Le chef des Bostangis, à qui le CHOEUR répond)

    Vivir, vivir, Gran Sultana
    Unir, unir, li cantara
    Mille volte exclamara
    Vivir, vivir, Gran Sultana.
    Bello como star un flor;
    Durar quanto far arbor,
    All'enemigos su sçabola,
    Come a frutas tempesta.
    Long live, long live (our) great Sultan
    Together, together (we) sing to him.
    A thousand times we exclaim:
    Long live, long live (our) great Sultan.
    Fair as a flower is;
    Long lasting as a tree does,
    (Fending) his sabre on the enemy,
    As a storm (pours) on fruits.
    La rusciada matutina,
    Far florir su jardina.
    Favor celesta
    Coprir su turbanta.
    Star contento
    Star potento.
    Del mondo star
    l'amor o lo spavento.
    En regnar
    En amar.
    Far tributir, l'Occidento l'Oriento.
    En regnar
    En amar,
    Sempre sentir
    Plazer sensa tormento.
    The morning dew,
    Makes his garden blossom.
    Heavenly favours
    Shade his turban.
    (You) are pleased
    (You) are mighty
    You are the charm
    Or scourge of the world.
    In rule
    (And) in love,
    Make the west tributary to the Orient.
    In rule
    (And) in love.
    (You) always experience
    Delight without bane.
    Dir e far,
    O disfar,
    Subito, subito
    Su lo momento.
    Star contento
    Star potento
    Del mondo Star
    L'amor o lo spavento.
    (You) proclaim and achieve,
    Or undo,
    At once, at once,
    Right away,
    You are pleased
    (You) are mighty
    (You) are the charm
    Or scourge of the world.
  12. For those that were kept in Tunisia, among the very rich bibliography, see, for instance, Riggio, Achille, 'Cronaca Tabarchina dal 1756 ai primordi dell'Ottocento ricavata dai registri parrocchiali di Santa Croce in Tunisi' Revue Tunisienne n. 31-32 (1937) p. 353; and des Arcs, R.P. Anselme, Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire de la Mission des Capucins dans la Régence de Tunis (1624-1865) (Rome, 1889.) The mention of 'Tabarchino' ceases in the records after 1808, but still in 1829 Carlo Moro, vice-consul of England and France at Sfax, is listed as 'Tabarchino Tunisino.' Tabarka had been opened in 1541 by Clemente Cicero from La Calle with a ten year concession, until taken by Younes in 1741; its early history is to be found in Lanfreducci e Bosio, 'Costa e Discorsi di Barbaria ... fatto e complitto in Malta al primo di Settembre 1587', translated by P. Grandchamp Revue Africaine (1925) p. 72. Abbé Raynal, Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes (Amsterdam, 1770); Manfroni, C., I colonizzatori Italiani durante il Medio Evo e Rinascimento (Milan, 1933); Fr. Podestà 'L'Isola di Tabarca e le Pescherie di corallo nel mare circostante' Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria vol. 13, fasc. V (1894), as well as La Pesca del Corallo in Africa nel Medio Evo ei Genovesi a Marsacares (Genoa, 1897) and Pàstine, Onorato, 'Liguri pescatori di corallo' Giornale Storico Letterario di Liguria (Bergamo, 1931) vols. III-IV; Plantet, E., Correspondance des Bey de Tunis et des Consuls de France avec la Cour (1577-1830) 2 vols. (Paris, 1893-1899) mentions in vol. II, p. 37:
    papiers et mémoires concernant l'île de Tabarque, les traités faits avec MM. Lomellini de Genès, le procès pendant entre eux et le Patrimoine Royal du Roy d'Espagne...
    Ministère Affaires Étrangers Mémoires et Documents Africains, vol. VIII, folio 189.

    On 28 July, 1826, Consul Filippi (quoted by Gallico, page 139) speculated on the eventual lease of the island (also coveted by the King of Naples) rich in tuna fishing grounds and the exclusive trade of wool, wax and leather; in his opinion 50 soldiers were adequate to protect it, possibly through a trade company. The advice was not heeded by the Sardinian Government, and in 1869 the consul on a visit just mentioned bare pastures and a few fishermen from Brittany.

    For the ill-known and complicated relations of the contiguous 'bastions' (factories) of Stora (Skikda), La Buona (Annaba), Capo Rosa, La Cala di Marsacares (La Calle, presently El Kala, and originally Marsa el Kharaz), Capo Negro facing the island of Tabarka, and Fiumara Salata, see Dureau de la Malle Fragments d'un voyage dans les Régences de Tunis et d'Alger, fait de 1783 à 1786 par R. Desfontaines, and Relation d'un voyage sur les côtes de Barbarie fait par ordre du Roy en 1724 et 24 par JA Peyssonnel (Paris, 1838) including a detailed census of the 100 soldiers guarding the Tabarca Fort, 350 fishermen and 50 porters, totalling 1500 people; Féraud, Charles, La Calle et Documents pour servir à l'Histoire des anciennes concession Françaises d'Afrique (Algiers, 1877) and Masson, Paul Les Compagnies du Corail, Etude Historique sur le Commerce de Marseille au XVI Siècle (Paris, 1908). Starting with Tommaso Lencio (1561) who initiated contacts with Algiers 'pour la pêche du courail de Barberie' (moving later to La Buona), most of the early factors had been of Italian expression: G. de Godiano at la Calle (1568-1573), Giovanni Porrata from 1582 to 1597; Vittorio Marchione at la Buona (1575-1585) and B. d'Antone at Capo Rosa: chiefly Corsicans who emigrated to France after the 1553 rebellion. (The Franco-Tunisian Treaty of 1770 extended to Corsicans the same privileges as to the French.) In 1651 the Lomellini were paying 22 cases of coral to the Bey of Tunis, and 8 to the Dey of Algiers, though the common boundary towards the sea, one of the oldest in Africa, dates back to 1614. Sanson Napollon brought back from his eventful mission in 1631 four maps now in the French National Archives (Marine mss. 16164) entitled 'Plans du Bastion de la Calle Mascarez, du Cap de Rose et un peu de la coste'. The first is 'La costa che guardano li Franciessy in Barbaria,' with the boundary marked by a line; the third, 'Le port nommé La Calle Marsagueles,' and the fourth 'Capo di Rosa.') See Davity, Afrique page 214: 'Près du Cap de Mascarez ou Massacaresse comme les italiens l'appellent,' and R. Fr. Pierre Dan, Histoire de la Barbarie et des corsaires des Royaumes et des villes d'Alger, de Tunis, de Salé et de Tripoly (Paris, 1649). Mascarez was even confused with Mascara, and the files from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs refer indifferently to Fiumar Salade, Fiumare Salde, Fumaire Sallade, Fumaire salée et d'Abeillo. See Pignon, J., 'Un comptoir Français à l'Est du Cap Serrat, la Fumayre Sallatte' 1er Congrès de la Fédération des Sociétés savantes de l'Afrique du Nord (Algiers, 1935) page 275: 'Near Cap Serrat on the peninsula west of Oued Guemgoum, by the Marabout of Sidi Rherib...' <-

  13. His Letters from Tunis to Francesco Redi were published in Florence, 1829, and also in Venice, 1837. <-
  14. See for instance: State Archives of Venice, 5 Savi alla Mercanzia (1794) B769, as reported by Lucette Valensi Le Maghreb avant la prise d'Alger (Paris, 1969) p. 104. <-
  15. See note 4 . <-
  16. See Masi, C., 'Il Granducato Lorenese e i Livornesi di Tunisia' in Bolletino Storico Livornese 1937, as well as Grandchamp, P., 'Fixation du Statut des sujets Tuscans Israélites dans la Régence de Tunis (1822-1847)' Revue Tunisienne n. 33 (1938) page 47, and Braudel, Ferdinand and Ruggero Romano Navires et Marchandises à l'entrée du Port de Livourne (1547-1611) (Paris, 1951.) <-
  17. Up to 1891 a 'carrouba' was 1/16 of a Tunisian piastre, which was divided into 52 aspri, 'piastre' being the European denomination of the rial, while the Arabic 'fels' was called 'bourbe' or 'bourbine'; contemporary chronicles often mention 'pezzi colonnati' (columned pieces, from a device on the Spanish state arms) that, in 1802, were worth 3.25 piastres, as well as 'pezzi duri.' Even now in Spain a 5-peseta coin is called a 'duro.' Incidentally, the pezzi colonnati were usually referred to in correspondence as $ from the superimposed initials P8 of the old 'pieza de ocho reales,' pieces of eight, the most prized species at that time. [An alternative explanation of the dollar sign is that it is an abbreviation of the original full name: St. Joachimsthaler, named for the area of Bohemia ('the valley of St. Joachim') where the dollar was first produced. -- A.D.C.] The Venetian sequins were called 'bounduqi,' and another Lingua Franca locution was 'manubi' (mahbub) that in 1820 was worth 10 gold piastres. On matters of currency refer to Plantet, or Marcel, J-J., in L'Univers Pictoresque (above) and most notably, Farrugia de Candia, J., 'Monnaies Husseinites de 1705 à 1782' Revue Tunisienne nouvelle série, no. 21 (1935.) <-
  18. His Ragguaglio del Viaggio Compendioso in Barberia was published anonymously by Sonzogno in Milan in 1805, and is at times erroneously attributed to Ludovico Settala, to whom it was dedicated. <-
  19. This very popular account, first published as Avventure ed Osservazioni sulle Coste di Barberia in Florence in 1817 had many reprints (Milan, Sonzogno, 1829; Genoa, Agostino Pendola, 1830; Florence, Alla Speranza, 1831; Mendrisio, Alla Minerva Ticinese, 1831) was included in the Geographical and Historical Narrative of a Residence in Algiers, comprising an account of the Regency, Biographical Sketches of the Dey and his Ministers, Anecdotes of the Late War, Observations on the Christian Powers and the Regency, and importance of their complete subjugation, by Edward Blaquier [sic] (London, 1818) and subsequently translated as Relation d'un Séjour en Alger (Paris, 1820) and Reise an der Kuste der Barbarei, aus dem Italiänischen übersetzt (Berlin, 1823). <-
  20. See Les Voyages d'Ali Bey el Abbassi en Afrique et en Asie (Paris, 1814), p. 24. <-
  21. Published in London, 1813. (See note 19 above.) <-
  22. See Ferrari, G., La spedizione della Marina Sarda a Tripoli nel 1825 (Rome, 1912) page 19. On 9 March 1820, the consul of Sardinia in Tunis, Palma di Borgofranco (quoted by Gallico) had filed a report on a similar incident which occurred to the consul of Naples, when the Bey of Tunis, offended by the nature of the homage, had forsaken the protocol, responding abruptly: 'Lo Re ti volir c[oionar?] mi? Lui forse pensar che mi non tenir compasso. Anda, anda, questo non star buono.' (Does your king want to f[uck?] me? Maybe he thinks I am lacking in judgment! Come on, come on, that's no good.) <-
  23. One copy of this rare volume is in the British Library. <-
  24. Mariano Stinca, from Sorrento, styled Guarda golfa (majordomo) in consular reports, Antonio Conti, or Baron G. Raffo. See Carteggio Sovrano, State Archive of Florence. Count G.B. Raffo from Chiavari was taken as a slave to Tunis in 1770; his son Giovanni Maria, born at the Bardo palace in 1785, was Bach Kasak of Hussein Bey, and then secretary of state for Ahmed and Mohammed Bey. He died in Paris in 1862; on a state visit to London in 1850 he met G. Mazzini, who wrote home about his distinctive Genoese accent. <-
  25. See Le Parler Arabe des Juifs d'Alger (Paris, 1912.) Sephardi Jews lived in North Africa for 450 years; over 200,000 emigrated from Morocco, and about 100,000 from Tunisia after 1956, 140,000 from Algeria in 1956-1960, and 30,000 from Libya around 1963. See Gilbert, M., Atlas of Jewish History (Dorset, 1985.) <-
  26. q.v. in 'L'Idea Coloniale', Rassegna del Mediterraneo 1926, p. 4, as well as Gallico, Augusto, 'La Colonia Italiana di Tunisi' Rassegna del MediterraneoJan 1928, pp. 77-92. <-
  27. For short samples of those rare languages, one may conveniently refer to The Gospel in Many Tongues intermittently published by the British and Foreign Bible Society for over a hundred years. In the hardbound edition of 1965, Judeo-Tunisian (no. 24 of 1932) is at page 10, and Judeo-Spanish (no. 758 of 1894) at page 150. A different variety of western Judeo-Arabic, used in Syria and Egypt, is given in the 1921 edition at no. II (1892, p. 4.) The contents of its much more ambitious Book of a Thousand Tongues is slated to appear on the Web in the next couple of years. <-
  28. In: The Encircled Sea: the Mediterranean Maritime Civilization (London, 1990) page 109. <-
  29. See: Katzner, Kenneth, Languages of the World (London, 1986) page 109. <-
  30. See: Corré, Alan D., 'Loanwords in the Lingua Franca,' in: Ben-Ami, Issachar, Recherches sur la Culture des Juifs d'Afrique du Nord (Jerusalem, 1991) pp. 41-46. [In Hebrew.] <-
  31. See for instance: Viaggi di Mare o siano le Carovane fatte dal Cavaliere di Malta Girolamo di Colloredo (1637-1659) a manuscript owned and published by Ugo Mursia in Milan, 1972. <-
  32. Cronica di Benedetto Dei (1418-1492) in the State Library of Munich (Cod. C 284), as reported in Amat di San Filippo, P., Biografia dei Viaggiatori Italiani (Rome, 1882.) He had lived seven years in Bosnia, and in 1467-69 visited Istanbul, Alexandria, Cairo, Beirut, Damascus and Jerusalem. In 1470-73 his travels included Oran, Sfax, 'the town that is undone' (la città che è disfatta), and Tunis, and they brought him as far as Timbuctoo. <-
  33. See: Despois, Eugene, and Paul Mesnard Oeuvres de Molière (Paris, 1883) vol. VIII. <-

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Alan D. Corré