Searching the PAIR resource catalog

This help file contains information on the following topics:



Navigating the database

While using the database, be sure to use the navigational elements that are provided by the database within the browser window. Do not use the "Forward" and "Back" buttons provided by the browser software itself.  This will ensure that the data retrieved during your database session will be intact, and available when using the "Saved Records" and "History" functions.

PAIR Database Navigational Elements

PAIR Database Navigational Elements

return to top



Overview of search options

You may search the database in two main ways. They are presented here in increasing order of specificity. Keep in mind that the narrower your search, the more precise your results, but also the less potential for browsing.

Subject and Keyword Search Screen

Subject and Keyword Search Screen

Basic Search. You can enter any keyword, natural language phrase, or combination of these into the first empty search box and click on the "Search" button beside it. Combining keywords using Boolean operators (i.e., AND, OR or NOT) is allowed here. (See Keyword search, below.) Note that all fields in the item record will be searched for any and all of your terms. (If you enter the words bass or fish you will obtain not only records where "bass" or "fish" appear in the title or subject fields, but also records for any materials in the collection which were written, created or published by people named Bass or Fish.)

You may also enter any letter or term into the second empty search box and click on the "Browse" button beside it to browse subject headings. Combining keywords using Boolean operators (i.e., AND, OR or NOT) is not allowed here, and if you try to enter more than one letter or term, either as a series or with connecting words such as AND, OR or NOT, the second letter or term will be ignored (i.e., it will show you the subject matching the first letter or term entered only).  

Guided Search. This method allows you to specify which field(s) in the item record--name, title, subject, and so forth--are to be searched for each of your terms. Use the drop-down menu's option "any of these" to apply 'or' between your terms; "all of these" to apply 'and' between your terms; and "as a phrase" to look for your terms as a phrase. Also, see below under Truncation character for helpful hints about looking for multiple forms of the same word (e.g., woman and women).

return to top



Keyword search

In both basic and guided searches, keywords may be entered as single terms, phrases, or combinations. AND, OR or NOT may be used to connect them, but AND is unnecessary. Typing in the words without connectors will have the same results as using AND. If you are linking more than one search condition, each should be placed within parentheses, or use the multiple fields in Guided search. If you would like to look for a specific phrase, you do not need to use quotation marks around the terms, but instead must use a proximity operator. Here are some examples:

Keyword(s) used

Will retrieve the following

Ming Dynasty temple

All records containing Ming and Dynasty and temple, not necessarily in that order

dance and music

All records containing BOTH terms

dance or music

All records containing EITHER term

(Zuni or Oneida) and voice

All records containing either "Zuni" OR "Oneida" AND that also contain "voice"

(Zuni or Oneida) and (voice not sacred)

All records that contain either "Zuni" or "Oneida" AND that also contain "voice" but NOT "sacred"

One useful strategy is to search using words that focus on the subject of interest, such as Japanese painting, then perform new searches by clicking on the author name, subject terms, or dates from the records retrieved to retrieve more records with those same terms.

Truncation Character. The asterisk (*) is a wildcard or truncation character; it will retrieve all variants of the root term to which it is attached or inserted. For example, searching for archit* will retrieve architecture, architectural, architect, architrave, etc. The character can also be inserted in the middle of a word to find varying forms or spellings. For example, searching for wom*n will retrieve women and woman and womyn.

The truncation character is often useful in name searches. When specifying an author or publisher's name, unless you are absolutely certain of the spelling, it may be wise to use the asterisk rather than spelling out the complete name. For example, the use of tao* in the name field will retrieve tao, taoism, and taoist, as well as Taoyuan and many other names. This is where using Guided search can help by narrowing your search by also specifying a title or one or more keywords.

Proximity Operator. You may also use the proximity operator nX, where X is a number expressing the maximum number of words which may be in between your search terms. (For example, a search for swamp n5 farm would retrieve records where the words "swamp" and "farm" are no more than 5 words apart. Or a search for swamp n0 farm would retrieve records where the words "swampfarm" and "farmswamp" appear with no words between swamp or farm.) This technique allows you to retrieve words or phrases that appear near or next to each other in the text. This can be very useful if the subject term for your area of interest is ill-defined or variable, or if you need to narrow a broad search.

Searching for URL Elements. The PAIR database also allows you to search for specific character elements within a URL. For example, if you want to retrieve all records with URLs containing "edu" you may simply enter "edu" (without quotes) in the keyword search box, and the search will return all records containing URLs with the characters "edu" contained within them. When conducting this type of keyword search you do not want to use the "." character as part of your search or it will fail. This ability to search for URL elements is unique from all the other databases within the catalog.

Searching for URL Elements

return to top



Browsing subject headings

Any letter or term may be entered to browse the subject headings. The letters or terms can only be entered individually to bring back one set of subjects. If you try to enter more than one, either as a series or with connecting words such as AND, OR or NOT, the second letter or term will be ignored (i.e., it will show you the subject matching the first letter or term entered).

return to top



Guided search

The search fields in guided searches work the same way as in keyword (basic) searches. You can either type in the operators you want to use (AND, OR or NOT), or, you can use the drop-down menu choices next to the search box to say the same thing. ("Any of these"=OR; "All of these"=AND, "As a phrase"= terms as an exact phrase). However, use of Boolean operators within the individual search boxes (separate from those provided in the drop-down menus) will overide the drop-down menu for the choices of "Any of these," "All of these," and "As a phrase." The Guided search also gives you the added ability to specify which field of the item records should be searched for your terms (and how much of what you have typed needs to be present). 

Guided Search Screen

Guided Search Screen

Example of a Guided Search

Example of a Guided Search

 

COVERAGE Search. You may limit your search to a specific country or region by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Coverage" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button.

Here is a list of countries and regions with resources in the PAIR database.

NAME Search. Searching the name field will retrieve records in fields that contain information pertaining to persons or organizations associated with the intellectual content in question (for example, the author, creator, and contributor). In addition to those fields, the search includes names of persons or organizations that are the subjects of individual resources (as with a photograph of Aldo Leopold). In this case, the name of the subject (Aldo Leopold) will appear in the subject field as Leopold, Aldo.

Example of a Name Search

Example of a Name Search

Personal names are always entered last name first followed by as much of the rest of the name as is known. No comma is necessary. When searching for organizations, enter as much of the organizational name as is known.

Name searches may use the wildcard truncation character (*). Searching for Gan* would retrieve records with the surname or organizational name Gan, as well as surnames or organizational names that begin with Gan, such as Gandi, Gandi-Sarvodaya, or Ganden Shartse Monastery.

Examples of name searches:

  • Gandi Mahatma

  • Ablahat I*

 

PUBLISHER Search. You may limit your search to a specific publisher by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Publisher" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button.

RELATED WORKS Search. You may limit your search to a specific topic by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Related Works" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button.

SUBJECT Search. You may limit your search to a specific subject by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Subject" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button.

SUBMITTER Search. You may limit your search to a specific submission organization (i.e., University of Wisconsin, Ohio State University, or University of Minnesota) by entering the title of the organization in the box provided, selecting the "Submitter" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button.

As with the Name search, you may use the wildcard truncation character (*) instead of entering the entire organization name during a Submitter search. For example, searching for Wis* would retrieve records that have been submitted by the University of Wisconsin.

TITLE Search. You may limit your search to a specific resource title by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Title" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button. Title Searches will find words or phrases in either the Title (main) field or the Title (other) field.

TYPE Search. You may limit your search to a specific type of resource by entering it in the box provided, selecting the "Type" field from the drop-down menu, and clicking on the "Search" button. All of the resources in the PAIR catalog are text resources.

Limit search by language. You may limit the language of the resource you are searching for by selecting the desired language from the drop-down menu provided. This will cause only resources in that particular language to appear matching the keywords or phrase you have typed.

Limit search by sub-collection. You may limit the sub-collection (or topic) of the resource you are searching for by selecting the desired sub-collection from the drop-down menu provided. This will cause only resources in that particular sub-collection to appear matching the keywords or phrase you have typed.

return to top



Display of information

The number of results retrieved for any given search displays in the upper right corner of the screen. You can skip through the records in the order they appear, (always alphabetically by the name and then the title field), or jump further in the result set by selecting a number in the results line as shown in the example below.

Records Retrieved

Records Retrieved

Record Display Formats.
Retrieved records may be displayed in Brief or Full view formats. The Brief view will display the Title, URL, and Description of each record. A Full view will contain all the information included in the Brief view along with any other available information that has been cataloged for that record (such as Country/Region, Publisher, and Subjects to name a few).

Brief View

Brief View

Full View

Full View


There are two ways to switch between display formats. On the initial Guided search screen, you may choose the desired format from a pull-down menu at the bottom of that search screen.


Setting the Display Format

Setting the Display Format

You may also choose the preferred display format once you are looking at a particular record. This can be done by selecting either "Brief" or "Full" from the "Select View" area of the display bar above the record listing(s).

Setting the Display format option two

return to top



Search session

From the time you enter the PAIR database until you exit, that is one "search session". You may perform an unlimited number of searches per session. A search history is maintained during your search session. You may repeat or combine searches at any time, but once you click the "Exit" option the session is terminated and your search history will be erased. Your search session will also time out after several minutes of inactivity on your part, and you will need to start a new session.

return to top



Search history

The database retains a history of all the searches you have performed in the current search session. You may see a listing of these searches by clicking on the History button in the menu bar (top of the screen, right).


Search History Screen

Search History Screen


You can combine and re-execute searches at any time. Search history saves the search parameter(s) and the number of records located, but not the records themselves. (See Saving records, below.) You can re-execute the search by clicking on the highlighted "Search Query." To combine searches, click on the boxes next to the searches and click on the "Search" button. As noted above, once you choose "Exit," your search history will no longer be available to you. If at any time your search session "times out" due to inactivity, this will also delete your search history.

return to top



Saving records

After you have executed a search and reviewed the records that result, you may mark any records you wish to save by clicking on the small check box to the upper left of each. If you want to save all of the records in a page of results, use the shortcut "Save All" button. You will need to do this for each individual results page.

Saving Records from Brief Display

Saving Records from Brief Display

These records will be placed on your Saved Records clipboard and will be available to you for the duration of your search session. To see your saved records, from any screen, click on "Saved Records" from the toolbar at the top of the screen (you may have to scroll up to find this toolbar). You will see a clipboard containing the records you have marked, in Full display. If you change your mind about any or all of the records, you may "unsave" them individually or by choosing "Unsave All."

Saved Records Screen

Saved Records Screen

Note that you can also save records by using your browser's File/Save command. Although this method will provide you with all of the citation information, some interface images may not display correctly when the file is opened.

return to top



E-mailing records

Once you have saved records (See Saving records, above, for tips on saving some or all of the retrieved records.), you can then email them to yourself or someone else. Choose "Saved Records" from the upper menu bar. You will see a clipboard containing your saved records.

E-mailing Records from Saved Records List

E-mailing Records from Saved Records List

If you change your mind about which records you want, you may "unsave" any or all of them at this point. When you are satisfied with the list displayed, click on the e-mail icon in the upper right-hand corner of the screen and fill in the desired e-mail address. A default subject will appear; you may change this if you wish, or add any desired comments. Then click "Send."

Filling in the E-mail Form

Filling in the E-mail Form

The records will be sent with the full display information (even though only the brief display information appears on the email screen). After you send the records, go back to the clipboard and "unsave" all of them. This clears the clipboard in case you decide to conduct additional searches.

return to top



Printing records

To print records, use your browser's print feature.

return to top



Searching in other or multiple databases within the catalog

The PAIR resource catalog is part of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections (UWDC) SiteSearch database catalog, which comprises resources on a variety of topics. While in the PAIR database, you may choose "Databases" from the top menu bar of any screen. You will then see a list of all of the UWDC SiteSearch databases. You may double-click any of these to open it and conduct a search, or you may choose "Virtual Catalog" and search in two or more of the databases with the same search term(s). The "Saved Records" and "History" functions on the navigation bar will retain searches that are conducted in the PAIR database and any of the other UWDC databases conducted within the same search session.

Searching in Multiple Databases

Searching in Multiple Databases

return to top



Exiting the database

Once you have finished searching the database, please click on "Exit" in the menu bar.

Exit Button

Exit Button

return to top



Getting more help

If you have a question that we haven't answered here, please feel free to email us!

 

About | Featured Resources | Keyword Search | Guided Search | Help

The PAIR Project is supported by the U.S. Department of Education program “Technological
Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access
” authorized under Title VI (Sec. 606)
Part A of the Higher Education Act. ©2005

Copyright © 2005 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

Help Using Asian Scripts